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And the Policeman Smiled. The Knot Bible. BBC Proms The Road Cycling Performance Manual. Whitaker's Little Book of Knowledge. The Pacific Crossing Guide. The Boat Repair Bible. The Authors XI. Click here to learn about the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program, a collaborative initiative of the Library of Congress. Synonymous with e-preservation and electronic preservation. The fact that nitrate and acetate base films decay under normal environmental conditions has created a preservation imperative of a magnitude matched only by the use of acid paper in printing.
Ideally, motion picture preservation involves the creation of surrogates for public use and one or more film masters that can be used to create new copies without subjecting the original source to further wear and tear. Masters are usually copied on film and access copies on videotape, DVD, or some other digital medium.
If the original is in poor condition, restoration may be required. Whenever possible, preservationists use carefully documented measures that are reversible and do not damage the original. Because film preservation is an expensive, time-consuming process, cold and dry storage is often used to retard deterioration while copying is prioritized to be accomplished over an extended period. Prolonging the existence of library and archival materials by maintaining them in a condition suitable for use, either in their original format or in a form more durable, through retention under proper environmental conditions or actions taken after a book or collection has been damaged to prevent further deterioration.
Former Yale University conservator Jane Greenfield lists the factors affecting the condition of books as light, temperature, relative humidity, pollution, inherent vice, biological attack, human error including improper storage and handling , deliberate mutilation, and disasters The Care of Fine Books , Nick Lyons Books, Single sheets may be encapsulated or laminated for protection. Materials printed on acid paper may be deacidified if their value warrants the expense; however, when the original has deteriorated beyond the point of salvation, reformat ting may be necessary.
Publications with soiled or foxed leaves are sometimes washed in rebinding. Materials infected with mildew or mold may require fumigation. Insects and larvae can be eliminated by freezing the infested item. Rare books and manuscripts are usually stored in a darkened room, with temperature and humidity strictly controlled. A broader term than conservation, preservation includes managerial and financial considerations, including storage and accommodation provisions, staffing, and policy decisions, as well as the techniques and methods of maintaining materials in optimal condition.
Click here to learn more about preservation at the Library of Congress and here to read the Preservation Policy of the American Library Association. The Preservation Advisory Centre of the British Library also provides online booklets on a variety of preservation topics. See also Bach to Baseball Cards , an online exhibit ion of years of creative preservation at the Library of Congress. See also : digital preservation, film preservation, Preservation and Reformatting Section, and Regional Alliance for Preservation.
Physical or chemical intervention to ensure the survival of manuscripts, books, and other documents, for example, the storage of materials under controlled environment al conditions or the treatment of mildew -infected paper with a chemical inhibitor. Non-invasive techniques are preferred as a means of preserving items in their original condition.
In a more general sense, any measures taken to protect archival or library collections from damage or deterioration, including initial examination, documentation, treatment, and preventive care supported by research. Current ethical standards require respect for the historical integrity of the item. A person educated, trained, and experienced in such procedures is a conservator. See also : conservation binding, conservation center, and conservation survey.
Rebinding of a book or other bound item in poor condition, to prevent further deterioration and to ensure the long-term survival of its content. Items originally printed on acid paper or in fragile condition may require photocopy ing. Preservation binding is done with acid- and lignin -free materials, with little or no intent to replicate the physical appearance of the original binding. Jones of the University of Iowa in cooperation with the Center for the Book. The library's collections swelled to over , volumes during the radical phase of the French Revolution , when the private libraries of aristocrats and clergy were seized.
After four centuries of control by the Crown, this great library now became the property of the French people. Although by the midth century England could claim subscription libraries and Scotland, , the foundation of the modern public library system in Britain is the Public Libraries Act The Act first gave local boroughs the power to establish free public libraries and was the first legislative step toward the creation of an enduring national institution that provides universal free access to information and literature. In the s, at the height of the Chartist movement, there was a general tendency towards reformism in the United Kingdom.
The Capitalist economic model had created a significant amount of free time for workers, and the middle classes were concerned that the workers' free time was not being well-spent. This was prompted more by Victorian middle class paternalism rather than by demand from the lower social orders.
In , and against government opposition, James Silk Buckingham , MP for Sheffield and a supporter of the temperance movement , was able to secure the Chair of the Select Committee which would examine "the extent, causes, and consequences of the prevailing vice of intoxication among the labouring classes of the United Kingdom" and propose solutions. Francis Place , a campaigner for the working class, agreed that, "The establishment of parish libraries and district reading rooms, and popular lectures on subjects both entertaining and instructive to the community might draw off a number of those who now frequent public houses for the sole enjoyment they afford".
The advocacy of Ewart and Brotherton then succeeded in having a select committee set up to consider public library provision. The Report argued that the provision of public libraries would steer people towards temperate and moderate habits. With a view to maximising the potential of current facilities, the Committee made two significant recommendations.
They suggested that the government should issue grants to aid the foundation of libraries and that the Museums Act should be amended and extended to allow for a tax to be levied for the establishment of public libraries. The earliest example in England of a library to be endowed for the benefit of users who were not members of an institution such as a cathedral or college was the Francis Trigge Chained Library in Grantham , Lincolnshire , established in The library still exists and can justifiably claim to be the forerunner of later public library systems.
The beginning of the modern, free, open access libraries really got its start in the UK in Parliament appointed a committee, led by William Ewart, on Public Libraries to consider the necessity of establishing libraries through the nation: In , their report noted the poor condition of library service, it recommended the establishment of free public libraries all over the country, and it led to the Public Libraries Act in , which allowed all cities with populations exceeding 10, to levy taxes for the support of public libraries.
Norwich was the eleventh library to open, in , after Winchester , Manchester , Liverpool , Bolton , Kidderminster , Cambridge , Birkenhead , and Sheffield. Another important act was the Education Act , which increased literacy and thereby the demand for libraries. By , more than 75 cities had established free libraries, and by the number had reached And these acts influenced similar laws in other countries.
In the United States, the first tax-supported public library was Peterborough , New Hampshire first supported by state funds then an "Act Providing for the Establishment of Public Libraries" in The US Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA recognizes libraries as an invaluable community service and has added libraries to the list of essential services eligible for emergency funding after a disaster. The year is key in the history of librarianship in the United States. The American Library Association was formed on October 6,  as well as The American Library Journal , Melvil Dewey published his decimal-based system of classification, and the United States Bureau of Education published its report, "Public libraries in the United States of America; their history, condition, and management.
They contributed their own collections of books, conducted lengthy fund raising campaigns for buildings, and lobbied within their communities for financial support for libraries, as well as with legislatures and the Carnegie library Endowment, founded in the 20th century. Philanthropists and businessmen, including John Passmore Edwards, Henry Tate and Andrew Carnegie , helped to increase the number of public libraries from the late 19th century.
Carnegie alone built over libraries in the US, Carnegie Libraries in Britain, in addition to many more in the Commonwealth. In , Bill and Melinda Gates worked on their first major philanthropic venture call the U. Library Program. The program provided grants to "more than 5, libraries in the United States, installed more than 25, PCs and trained 7, librarians. Library Program has "increased public access to computer, the Internet and digital information to library patrons in low-income communities".
Many institutions make a distinction between a circulating or lending library , where materials are expected and intended to be loaned to patrons, institutions, or other libraries, and a reference library where material is not lent out. Travelling libraries, such as the early horseback libraries of eastern Kentucky  and bookmobiles , are generally of the lending type. Modern libraries are often a mixture of both, containing a general collection for circulation, and a reference collection which is restricted to the library premises.
Also, increasingly, digital collections enable broader access to material that may not circulate in print, and enables libraries to expand their collections even without building a larger facility. Academic libraries are generally located on college and university campuses and primarily serve the students and faculty of that and other academic institutions.
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Some academic libraries, especially those at public institutions, are accessible to members of the general public in whole or in part. Academic libraries are libraries that are hosted in post-secondary educational institutions, such as colleges and universities. Their main function are to provide support in research and resource linkage for students and faculty of the educational institution. Specific course-related resources are usually provided by the library, such as copies of textbooks and article readings held on 'reserve' meaning that they are loaned out only on a short-term basis, usually a matter of hours.
Some academic libraries provide resources not usually associated with libraries, such as the ability to check out laptop computers, web cameras, or scientific calculators. Academic libraries offer workshops and courses outside of formal, graded coursework, which are meant to provide students with the tools necessary to succeed in their programs. These workshops provide students with skills that can help them achieve success in their academic careers and often, in their future occupations , which they may not learn inside the classroom.
The academic library provides a quiet study space for students on campus; it may also provide group study space, such as meeting rooms. In North America, Europe, and other parts of the world, academic libraries are becoming increasingly digitally oriented. Some academic libraries take on new roles, for instance, acting as an electronic repository for institutional scholarly research and academic knowledge, such as the collection and curation of digital copies of students' theses and dissertations. Children's libraries are special collections of books intended for juvenile readers and usually kept in separate rooms of general public libraries.
Some children's libraries have entire floors or wings dedicated to them in bigger libraries while smaller ones may have a separate room or area for children. They are an educational agency seeking to acquaint the young with the world's literature and to cultivate a love for reading.
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Their work supplements that of the public schools. Services commonly provided by public libraries may include storytelling sessions for infants, toddlers, preschool children, or after-school programs, all with an intention of developing early literacy skills and a love of books. One of the most popular programs offered in public libraries are summer reading programs for children, families, and adults. Since animals are a calming influence and there is no judgment, children learn confidence and a love of reading.
Many states have these types of programs: parents need simply ask their librarian to see if it is available at their local library. A national or state library serves as a national repository of information, and has the right of legal deposit , which is a legal requirement that publishers in the country need to deposit a copy of each publication with the library.
Unlike a public library, a national library rarely allows citizens to borrow books. Often, their collections include numerous rare, valuable, or significant works. There are wider definitions of a national library, putting less emphasis on the repository character. Many national libraries cooperate within the National Libraries Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions IFLA to discuss their common tasks, define and promote common standards, and carry out projects helping them to fulfil their duties.
A public library provides services to the general public. If the library is part of a countywide library system, citizens with an active library card from around that county can use the library branches associated with the library system. A library can serve only their city, however, if they are not a member of the county public library system.
Much of the materials located within a public library are available for borrowing. The library staff decides upon the number of items patrons are allowed to borrow, as well as the details of borrowing time allotted.
Typically, libraries issue library cards to community members wishing to borrow books. Often visitors to a city are able to obtain a public library card. Many public libraries also serve as community organizations that provide free services and events to the public, such as reading groups and toddler story time. For many communities, the library is a source of connection to a vast world, obtainable knowledge and understanding, and entertainment.
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According to a study by the Pennsylvania Library Association , public library services play a major role in fighting rising illiteracy rates among youths. As the number of books in libraries have steadily increased since their inception, the need for compact storage and access with adequate lighting has grown. The stack system involves keeping a library's collection of books in a space separate from the reading room. This arrangement arose in the 19th century. Book stacks quickly evolved into a fairly standard form in which the cast iron and steel frameworks supporting the bookshelves also supported the floors, which often were built of translucent blocks to permit the passage of light but were not transparent, for reasons of modesty.
The introduction of electrical lighting had a huge impact on how the library operated. The use of glass floors was largely discontinued, though floors were still often composed of metal grating to allow air to circulate in multi-story stacks. As more space was needed, a method of moving shelves on tracks compact shelving was introduced to cut down on otherwise wasted aisle space.
Library 2. Some of the aspects of Library 2. Despite the importance of public libraries, they are routinely having their budgets cut by state legislature. Funding has dwindled so badly that many public libraries have been forced to cut their hours and release employees. A reference library does not lend books and other items; instead, they must be read at the library itself.
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Typically, such libraries are used for research purposes, for example at a university. Some items at reference libraries may be historical and even unique. Many lending libraries contain a "reference section", which holds books, such as dictionaries, which are common reference books, and are therefore not lent out. A research library is a collection of materials on one or more subjects. A research library is most often an academic or national library , but a large special library may have a research library within its special field, and a very few of the largest public libraries also serve as research libraries.
A large university library may be considered a research library; and in North America, such libraries may belong to the Association of Research Libraries. A research library can be either a reference library, which does not lend its holdings, or a lending library, which does lend all or some of its holdings. Some extremely large or traditional research libraries are entirely reference in this sense, lending none of their materials; most academic research libraries, at least in the US and the UK, now lend books, but not periodicals or other materials. Many research libraries are attached to a parental organization and serve only members of that organization.
Digital libraries are libraries that house digital resources. They are defined as an organization and not a service that provide access to digital works, have a preservation responsibility to provide future access to materials, and provides these items easily and affordably. The most common factors that influence access are: The library's content, the characteristics and information needs of the target users, the library's digital interface, the goals and objectives of the library's organizational structure, and the standards and regulations that govern library use.
Digital objects cannot be preserved passively, they must be curated by digital librarians to ensure the trust and integrity of the digital objects. One of the biggest considerations for digital librarians is the need to provide long-term access to their resources; to do this, there are two issues requiring watchfulness: Media failure and format obsolescence. With media failure, a particular digital item is unusable because of some sort of error or problem. A scratched CD-Rom, for example, will not display its contents correctly, but another, unscratched disk will not have that problem.
Format obsolescence is when a digital format has been superseded by newer technology, and so items in the old format are unreadable and unusable. Dealing with media failure is a reactive process, because something is done only when a problem presents itself. In contrast, format obsolescence is preparatory, because changes are anticipated and solutions are sought before there is a problem.
Future trends in digital preservation include: Transparent enterprise models for digital preservation, launch of self-preserving objects, increased flexibility in digital preservation architectures, clearly-defined metrics for comparing preservation tools, and terminology and standards interoperability in real time. All other libraries fall into the " special library " category. Many private businesses and public organizations, including hospitals, churches, museums, research laboratories, law firms, and many government departments and agencies, maintain their own libraries for the use of their employees in doing specialized research related to their work.
Depending on the particular institution, special libraries may or may not be accessible to the general public or elements thereof. In more specialized institutions such as law firms and research laboratories, librarians employed in special libraries are commonly specialists in the institution's field rather than generally trained librarians, and often are not required to have advanced degrees in specifically library-related field due to the specialized content and clientele of the library. Libraries and the LGBTQ community have an extensive history, and there are currently many libraries, archives, and special collections devoted to preserving and helping the LGBTQ community.
Women's libraries, such as the Vancouver Women's Library or the Women's Library LSE are examples of women's libraries that offer services to women and girls and focus on women's history. Some special libraries, such as governmental law libraries, hospital libraries, and military base libraries commonly are open to public visitors to the institution in question.
Depending on the particular library and the clientele it serves, special libraries may offer services similar to research, reference, public, academic, or children's libraries, often with restrictions such as only lending books to patients at a hospital or restricting the public from parts of a military collection. Given the highly individual nature of special libraries, visitors to a special library are often advised to check what services and restrictions apply at that particular library. Special libraries are distinguished from special collections , which are branches or parts of a library intended for rare books, manuscripts, and other special materials, though some special libraries have special collections of their own, typically related to the library's specialized subject area.
For more information on specific types of special libraries, see law libraries , medical libraries , music libraries , or transportation libraries. Most libraries have materials arranged in a specified order according to a library classification system, so that items may be located quickly and collections may be browsed efficiently. These reference stacks may be open to selected members of the public. Others require patrons to submit a "stack request", which is a request for an assistant to retrieve the material from the closed stacks: see List of closed stack libraries in progress.
Larger libraries are often divided into departments staffed by both paraprofessionals and professional librarians. Basic tasks in library management include the planning of acquisitions which materials the library should acquire, by purchase or otherwise , library classification of acquired materials, preservation of materials especially rare and fragile archival materials such as manuscripts , the deaccessioning of materials, patron borrowing of materials, and developing and administering library computer systems. Library materials like books, magazines, periodicals, CDs, etc.
The International Organization for Standardization ISO has published several standards regarding the management of libraries through its Technical Committee 46 TC 46 ,  which is focused on "libraries, documentation and information centers, publishing, archives, records management, museum documentation, indexing and abstracting services, and information science". The following is a partial list of some of them: . Librarians have sometimes complained  that some of the library buildings which have been used to accommodate libraries have been inadequate for the demands made upon them.
In general, this condition may have resulted from one or more of the following causes:. Much advancement has undoubtedly been made toward cooperation between architect and librarian, [ when? Some patrons may not know how to fully use the library's resources. This can be due to individuals' unease in approaching a staff member. Ways in which a library's content is displayed or accessed may have the most impact on use.
An antiquated or clumsy search system, or staff unwilling or untrained to engage their patrons, will limit a library's usefulness. In the public libraries of the United States, beginning in the 19th century, these problems drove the emergence of the library instruction movement, which advocated library user education. Libraries should inform their users of what materials are available in their collections and how to access that information.
Before the computer age, this was accomplished by the card catalogue —a cabinet or multiple cabinets containing many drawers filled with index cards that identified books and other materials. In a large library, the card catalogue often filled a large room. The emergence of the Internet , however, has led to the adoption of electronic catalogue databases often referred to as "webcats" or as online public access catalogues , OPACs , which allow users to search the library's holdings from any location with Internet access.
Electronic catalogue databases are criticized by some who believe that the old card catalogue system was both easier to navigate and allowed retention of information, by writing directly on the cards, that is lost in the electronic systems. This argument is analogous to the debate over paper books and e-books. While libraries have been accused of precipitously throwing out valuable information in card catalogues, most modern ones have nonetheless made the move to electronic catalogue databases.
Large libraries may be scattered within multiple buildings across a town, each having multiple floors, with multiple rooms housing the resources across a series of shelves. Once a user has located a resource within the catalogue, they must then use navigational guidance to retrieve the resource physically, a process that may be assisted through signage, maps, GPS systems, or RFID tagging.
Finland has the highest number of registered book borrowers per capita in the world. Over half of Finland's population are registered borrowers. In the 21st century, there has been increasing use of the Internet to gather and retrieve data. The shift to digital libraries has greatly impacted the way people use physical libraries. Between and , the average American academic library saw the overall number of transactions decline approximately 2. These facts might be a consequence of the increased availability of e-resources.
One claim to why there is a decrease in the usage of libraries stems from the observation of the research habits of undergraduate students enrolled in colleges and universities. There have been claims that college undergraduates have become more used to retrieving information from the Internet than a traditional library. As each generation becomes more in tune with the Internet, their desire to retrieve information as quickly and easily as possible has increased. Finding information by simply searching the Internet could be much easier and faster than reading an entire book.
While the retrieving information from the Internet may be efficient and time saving than visiting a traditional library, research has shown that undergraduates are most likely searching only. In the mids, Swedish company Distec invented a library book vending machine known as the GoLibrary , that offers library books to people where there is no branch, limited hours, or high traffic locations such as El Cerrito del Norte BART station in California.
A library may make use of the Internet in a number of ways, from creating their own library website to making the contents of its catalogues searchable online. Some specialised search engines such as Google Scholar offer a way to facilitate searching for academic resources such as journal articles and research papers. The Online Computer Library Center allows anyone to search the world's largest repository of library records through its WorldCat online database.
Digitization of books, particularly those that are out-of-print , in projects such as Google Books provides resources for library and other online users. Due to their holdings of valuable material, some libraries are important partners for search engines such as Google in realizing the potential of such projects and have received reciprocal benefits in cases where they have negotiated effectively.
Library scholars have acknowledged that libraries need to address the ways that they market their services if they are to compete with the Internet and mitigate the risk of losing users. This can be problematic for library services that are publicly funded and find it difficult to justify diverting tight funds to apparently peripheral areas such as branding and marketing. The privacy aspect of library usage in the Internet age is a matter of growing concern and advocacy; privacy workshops are run by the Library Freedom Project which teach librarians about digital tools such as the Tor Project to thwart mass surveillance.
It is the global voice of the library and information profession, and its annual conference provides a venue for librarians to learn from one another. Library bodies such as CILIP formerly the Library Association, founded may advocate the role that libraries and librarians can play in a modern Internet environment, and in the teaching of information literacy skills. Public library advocacy is support given to a public library for its financial and philosophical goals or needs. Most often this takes the form of monetary or material donations or campaigning to the institutions which oversee the library, sometimes by advocacy groups such as Friends of Libraries and community members.
Originally, library advocacy was centered on the library itself, but current trends show libraries positioning themselves to demonstrate they provide "economic value to the community" in means that are not directly related to the checking out of books and other media. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 27 September For other uses, see Library disambiguation.
Organized collection of books or other information resources. Main article: History of libraries. Main article: Subscription library. Main article: National library. Main article: Public library. Main article: Academic library. For the collection of digitized books, see Internet Archive's Children's Library. Main article: Research library. Main article: Digital library. Main article: Special library. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
See also: Digital library. See also: List of library associations. Education portal. Main articles: List of libraries , List of national and state libraries , and List of libraries in the ancient world. Libraries in the Ancient World. Yale University Press. Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 5 March A short history of the world.
Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 June Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford, ; pp. A History of the Ancient Near East ca. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, p. Archive and library technique in ancient Mesopotamia. Libri: International Journal of Libraries, 6 3. Librarianship: Its Philosophy and History. Asia Publishing House p. Mohammad Reza Tajadod ed. Al Fehrest in Persian. Tehran: Asatir Publications.
Payam Baharestan Magazine in Farsi. Dio Chrysostom: Politics, Letters, and Philosophy.